美国作梗,WTO上诉机构停摆,世贸活动就进行不下去了吗?-瞭望智库

出款需达投注量是什么

瞭望智库

2016年5月12日   星期四   丙申年   四月初六出款需达投注量是什么

设为出款需达投注量是什么 | 加入收藏夹           中文站 | EN

美国作梗,WTO上诉机构停摆,世贸活动就进行不下去了吗?

周密 | 商务部研究院美大所副所长

出款需达投注量是什么faburiqi:2019-12-13

即便WTO明确提供了争端解决的工具和方式,各成员仍有大量争端选择通过磋商方式加以解决。

出款需达投注量是什么dangdishijian12yue10ri,shimaozuzhizonglishihuijieshu,shimaozuzhizongganshiazeweiduoxuanbu,youyugaijinshangsujigoudecaoanbingweitongguo,shangsujigouyu11rizhengshi“tingbai”。

出款需达投注量是什么zuoweizhengduanjiejuejizhideyibufen,shangsujigouchangshe7mingfaguan,meirenrenqi4nian,meiqianjianzhishaoxuyao3mingfaguanjinxingshenli。cong11riqi,shangsujigouzhishengyimingfaguanzairen。

出款需达投注量是什么ruciyilai,xuduorenbujinyaowen,shijiemaoyihuodonghainengzhengchangjinxingma?haiyouqitaguizekexunma?

出款需达投注量是什么quanqiumaoyizichanshengyilaijiuzaibuduantansuoxinguizedexingcheng。

出款需达投注量是什么guoyuguozhijiandemaoyihuodongjishigefangziyuan、chanye、jishuyoushidetixian,youshishichangchayihuaxuqiudemanzu。

weilebaozhangmaoyihuanjingdewending、keyuqi,zaishichangxuqiutuidongxia,geguozhengfutongguoqianshuduobian、quyuhuoshuangbianxieding,zuochugongtongchengnuo,weiguojimaoyibaojiahuhang。

出款需达投注量是什么bansuijishujinbuheqiyedeguojihuafazhan,maoyimoshichixudiaozheng,maoyixinyetaibuduanchuxian,zaichuangzaogengdamaoyikongjiandetongshi,yeyinqilegengduoxuyaojiejuedewentihechongtu,xuyaoduijingmaoguizejinyibuxihuayufazhan。

duobianjingmaotixiguoqushi、xianzaishi、jianglairengjiangshiguojimaoyidezhuyaopingtaihebaozhang,fuhejuedaduoshuchengyuandefazhanliyi。

一、多边贸易体系下的争端解决机制

1995nianjianlideshijiemaoyizuzhi(wto)jiangqiqianshenguanshuihemaoyizongxieding(gatt)suoguanxiadejingmaohuodongzuoledafutuozhan,tongshiyezaizhengduanjiejueshangjinyibuqianghualejizhijianshe。

yugattxiangbi,wtoshelidetongguozhuanjiazubaogao、shangsujigou(ab)deliangjizhongshenmoshi,weiwtochengyuanjianzhengduandejiejueshedingleshixian。baisufangxuyaozaiguidingshijianneianzhaoshangsujigoudezuizhongbaogaogaibianbeisudezhengcexingwei,fouzeqitashougaizhengcesunhaidewtochengyuanjianghuodewtoshouquancaiquxiangyingbaofu。

zhengruwtozijizaijieshaozhengduanjiejuejizhishisuoshuodeneiyang,zhengduanjiejueshiduobianmaoyitixidehexinzhizhu,shimaoyitixigenganquanhekeyucedejichu,ruguoquefajiejuezhengduandefangfa,jiyuguizedexitongxiaolvjiangmingxianjiangdi。

shangsujigouyouwtochengyuantuijianbinggongtongrenkede7ren(suchengwtodafaguan,renqi4nian)zucheng。meigeshangsuanjianyou3mingdafaguanshenhe。

dafaguandetimingxuyaowtochengyuandeyizhirenke,ermeiguochixu(ziaobamazhengfushiqijiuyijingzheiyangzuole)zunaoshangsujigoudafaguanlinxuan(duocifoujuegeweihouxuanrendetiming,baokuomeiguojihouxuanren)。daole2019nian12yue11ri,zhishengxiayimingdafaguanrengzairenqinei,zheijiudaozhizhengduanjiejuejizhideshangsujizhichuxianmingxiande、kebeiliyongdeloudong。

gechengyuanrengrankeyixuanzetongguozhengduanjiejuejizhiyaoqiuwtoshelizhuanjiazujiejuezhengduan,danzhuanjiazuzuizhongbaogaoxingchenghou,baisufanghuobumanzhuanjiazubaogaodeshuangfangdoukenengjixutichushangsuqingqiu。zaidafaguankongquedeqingkuangxia,shangsujigouwufahuiyingshangsuqingqiu,zhuanjiazubaogaodeyijianyejiuyinciwufadeyishishi。

(tuweiqianrenmeiguomaoyitanpanyuanyushijiemaoyizuzhifaguanxierman。

aobamazhengfucengfanduiqiwtodafaguandelianren,

出款需达投注量是什么juwaijiecaiceshiyouyumeiguobumanxiermanzaishangsujigouzuochudecaijue,

出款需达投注量是什么bingqiexiwangrenmingyiweigengguanzhuyumeiguolichangdefaguan。)

二、“磋商”也是可接受并被鼓励的

wtorenwei,shelizhengduanjiejuetixidezhuyaomudebingfeitongguocaijuefangshilaijiejuejingmaozhengduan。zaizhengduanjiejuedequanliuchengzhong,chanshengzhengduandegefangzhijiandecuoshangdoushikeyijieshoubingbeigulide,yeshiwtochengyuanjiejuezhengduanyinggaiyouxiancaiqudefangshi。

juwtotongji,jiezhi2008nian1yue,wtochengyuanjiande369gezhengduananjianzhongzhiyoulveduoyusanfenzhiyi(136ge)deanjianwanchenglezhengduanjiejuedequanliucheng。jiezhi2019nian12yue,101gezhengduanyouyuchesuhuogexiangguanfangdachenggongshierdedaojiejue。

huanjuhuashuo,jibianwtomingquetigonglezhengduanjiejuedegongjuhefangshi,gechengyuanrengyoudaliangzhengduanxuanzetongguocuoshangfangshijiayijiejue,liru,zuizaode1995nianxinjiaposumalaixiyajinzhijuyixihejubingxijinkoudezhengduan(ds1)he2018nianmeiguosumoxigebufenchanpinfujiaguanshuidezhengduan(ds560)。

1995nian1yue10ri,xinjiapoduimalaixiyazhengfu1994nian3yue16ridehaiguanjinzhijinkouwuhaoxiudinglingtichuyiyi。1995nian3yue16ri,xinjiapoyaoqiujianlizhuanjiazu。3yue29ri,wtozhengduanjiejuejigou(dsb)yanchijianlizhuanjiazu。4yue10ri,xinjiapojuedingbuzaiyaoqiujianlizhuanjiazu。7yue19ri,zaiyumalaixiyajinxingcuoshanghou,xinjiapojuedingchesu,zhengduandeyijiejue。

2018nian7yue16ri,meiguoyaoqiuyumoxigejiuqiduiyuanchanyumeiguodebufenshangpinfujiaguanshuijinxingcuoshang。10yue18ri,meiguoyaoqiujianlizhuanjiazu。10yue29ri,dsbtuichijianlizhuanjiazu。11yue21ri,dsbjianlilezhuanjiazu,baxi、jianada、zhongguo、aijiheoumengdeng20gewtochengyuanbaoliuzuoweidisanfangdequanli。2019nian1yue25ri,wtozongganshirenmingzhuanjiazuzhuanjia。5yue28ri,meiguohemoxigetongzhidsbshuangfangyijingdachenggongtongrenkedejiejuefangan,moxigetongyijianshaoduibufenyuanchanyumeiguoshangpinzhengshoudeguanshui。5yue28ri,meimoliangguoxiangdsbtijiaozhongzhizhengduandeshumiantongzhi。7yue11ri,zhuanjiazujiangqibaogaotijiaowtogechengyuan。genjuwtoguize,gaibaogaoduizhengduanyuyijianyaomiaoshubingbaogaoyijingdachengjiejuezhengduandefangan。

出款需达投注量是什么zheiliangqianjianzaixingchengzhengduanhou,douweitongguoshangsujigoucaijuejiudeyijiejue。

三、区域或双边的争端解决机制可能更有效

jianyuguojijingmaohuodongdefuzaxingyuelaiyuegao,gefangchuyuduichanyefazhan、shichangbaohu、anquankekaodenggeleiwentidedanyou,caiqudecuoshiyeyuelaiyuefuza。tongshi,jingjiquanqiuhuadailaiguoyuguozhijiangeleishichangzhutidehudonglianxiyuelaiyuejinmi。kuaguogongsidefazhan、xingyezuzhiyulianmengdexietong,shideyigejingjitiguoneizhengcedewaiyixingyingxiangyuelaiyueda。

出款需达投注量是什么danshi,youyugeguofalv、zhiduzhijiandechayi,yijixinjishu、xinmoshisuodailaidezhongduobianyuanqingjingcengchubuqiong,yiyoudeguojiguizewangwangwufawanquanshiyong,zhengduanjiejuedenanduyuelaiyueda。zaiduobiantixiyinzhengduankuaisujileiqieziyuantouruyanzhongbuzudeqingkuangxia,xunqiuquyuhuoshuangbiandezhengduanjiejuejizhikenenggengyouxiao。

maoyiyutouzihuodongdeguanlianxingriyijinmi,erzaozaiwtochenglizhiqian,1965nianwanchengde《jiejueguojiayutaguoguominzhijiantouzizhengyigongyue(icsid)》he1988niande《duobiantouzidanbaojigougongyue(miga)》jiuyijingzaijiejuechongtuyuzhengduanzhongfahuilezhongyaozuoyong。

yuwtoxiangsi,shangshutiaoyuequelilejizhixingdezhengduanjiejuekuangjia,bingqieweiruhejiejuezhengduanmingquelejutide、kecaozuodebuzhou。tongshi,jiejuezhengduanyeshiyixiangguanfang(youqishizhengfu)zuoweixieyidediyuefang,yuanyilvxingzunzhongxiangguanzhengduanjiejuecaijueweiqianti。

出款需达投注量是什么yuwtoxiangbi,icsiddecaijuezhongyouxiangdangbiliyinweiduicaijuefatingzuchengbudang、fatingweibeijibenchengxuguize、caijueyijuheliyoubuzudengliyoubeichexiao,yanzhongyingxianglecaijuedezhongjutexing;migajiangweiyuexianzuoweidulidebaoxianpinzhongyuyichengbao,kuodaleduizhengduanchongtudefugaifanwei,yijinqianjifuzuoweicaijueneirongshixianqilaibijiaorongyi。

jinguanyuwtodezhengduanjiejuefangshiyousuobutong,shangshuzhengduanjiejuejizhirengranfahuizhezhongyaozuoyong,yifangmiankeyijiangdiqiyekuaguofengxian,yifangmianyenengchuliyinchongtuhezhengduandailaidebuquedingxing。liru,duiyutouzizhezaiqitaguojiadetouziquanyibeiboduoerweibeihelipeifudeqingkuang,icsiddecaijuejiufahuizhezhongyaozuoyong;migazuoweijigoubangzhutouzizheyudongdaoguozhengququanyi,xingshidaiweiqiuchangquan(baoxianjibenyuanzezhiyi,baoxianrendailibeibaoxianrenxiangdisanzhexingshiqingqiupeichangquanli)。

出款需达投注量是什么wtodezhengduanjiejuejizhitongyangyinweixieyihangaihuowumaoyi、fuwumaoyihetouzidenggexianghuodongerbeishouzhongshi。danshi,zaiwtozhengduanjiejuenenglijianruodeqingkuangxia,zhubiandegexiangzhengduanjiejuejizhidezuoyongxingyousuotigao。

“yidaiyilu”guojishangshizhengduanjiejuejizhijiushixinshidaixia,quyutongguoxietongyingduizhengduandexinjucuo。

alianqiuzai2004nianshelidibaiguojijinrongzhongxinfayuan,xinjiapoyu2015niansheliguojishangshifating,hasake、helandengguoyexiangjitongguolifasheliguojishangshifating。2018nian6yue,zhongguozuigaorenminfayuanfuzerenbiaoshi,zhongguoyeyaosheliguojishangshishenpanjigou,zujianguojishangshizhuanjiaweiyuanhui,tuidonggoujianduoyuanhuadeguojishangshijiufenjiejuejizhi。

出款需达投注量是什么(dibaiguojijinrongzhongxinfayuan)

bansui“yidaiyilu”changyibeiguangfanrenkehejieshou,yidaiyiluyanxianguojiahediqujianjingmaohuodongdeguimohefugaimianjiangchixuzengzhang,yewuzhongleiyegengweifengfu。tuidongxiangguanchengyuanjiaqiangxianghujiandeduoyuanxietong,xingchengzhujianwanshandezhengduanjiejuejizhi(baokuodiaojie、zhongcai、susongdengmoshi)kenengweijiejuegefangdemaoyizhengduanchuangzaoxindepingtaihefangshi。

四、世贸活动的规则依然有多源选择

出款需达投注量是什么xiangbiduobianhequyujingmaoguize,yishuangbianweizhudeziyoumaoyixieding(fta)huoquyumaoyixieding(rta)weiguojimaoyitigonglegengduokenengxing。

wtobenshenbingbupaichiqichengyuantanpanbingdachengftahuorta,danxieyibuyinggairanggechengyuanduiduobiandechengnuozaochengsunhai,erqiexieyigefanghaiyouyiwujishixiangwtogaozhisuodachengdexieyi。

出款需达投注量是什么jinnianlai,shuangbianxiedingchuxiankuaisuzengzhang,suoyouwtochengyuandouyiqianyouyigehuogengduodeshuangbianxieding。chulexianghanguo、zhili、xinjiapodengqianshuzimaoxiedingshuliangdadejingjitiyiwai,meiguodengdaguoduiyuzimaoxiedingyefeichangzhongshi,yuzimaoxiedinghuobanjiandeshuangbianmaoyizhanqiduiwaimaoyizongliangdebilijiaogao。

出款需达投注量是什么yuduobianhequyuxiedingxiangbi,shuangbianjingmaoxiedingzaixieyixingshi、quanliyiwuhebaozhangjizhidenggefangmiandougengweilinghuo,zhengduanjiejuewangwangshixieyishunlishishidezhongyaobaozhang。

yibeimeizimaoxieding(nafta)weili,zhengduanjiejuefenbuzaidi11zhang、di19zhanghedi20zhang,shejifanqingxiao、fanbutie、jizhianpai、zhengduanjiejuechengxudengneirong。jinglile25niandefazhan,jinguanmeiguoyixiedingshengjiweiyouzhongxinyujianadahemoxigetanpanxiedingbingjiangqimingmingwei“meimojiaxieding(usmca)”,xiedingrengzhuanshedi31zhangyizhuanmentaolunzhengduanjiejuejizhi。erqie,yunaftaxiangbi,usmcaduidiyuefangzaijiejuezhengduanshideguidinggengweixizhi,gefangweibimianguoneifalvhezhidushoushewaixieyigansheyegengjiajinshen。

出款需达投注量是什么(2018nian9yue30riwan,meiguo、moxigehejianadajiugengxinbeimeiziyoumaoyixiedingdachengyizhi,xindemaoyixiedingbeimingmingwei“meiguo—moxige—jianadaxieding”。)

zhongguoduiwaiqianshudezimaoxiedingyeyuelaiyueduo,gegexiedingzhongdousheliyoudulidezhengduanjiejuejizhizhangjie,chengweimaoyiguizedezhongyaocankao。

zaiquanqiujingmaozhixufashengzhongyaobianhuadeqingkuangxia,jinguanwtoshangsujigoutingbai,shijiemaoyihuodongdeguizeyiranyouduoyuanxuanze。

出款需达投注量是什么youxiaodezunshoumaoyiguizeshimaoyihuodongliangxingfazhandejichu。jianliheli、youxiao、shiyingliqiangdeguizetixi,jixuyaogengduochengyuanjiyushouquanhejijicanyu,youyilaiyuguizeshengjiduichuangxinhuodongtigongjilihezhichi。

出款需达投注量是什么zaigeguoliyijinmixianglian、hezuoriyizengqiangdebeijingxia,jinkuaijiaqiangxietongyuhezuo,tuidongduobianguizezaicifahuijichuxingzuoyong,tuidongquyuheshuangbianxiedinggengweilinghuo、shiyinghuanjingheyiwudefazhanxuqiu,fuwujingjifazhan,tigaoquanqiuchanyelianshanggefangdeshehuifuli。

来源:瞭望智库

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瞭望智库紧扣“国家政策研究、评估和执行反馈”这一核心业务定位,利用新华社内外智力资源, 连接全球主要智库,服务中央决策和新华社调查研究,发挥政治建言、理论创新、舆论引导、社会服务、公共外交等功能, 在社会上形成广泛的知名度和影响力。

学术合作:韦薇

shangwuhezuo:chenjing zhaoqinheng

出款需达投注量是什么tongxundizhi:beijingshidongchengquyongdingmenxibinhelu8haozhonghaidichanguangchangdongta16ceng.100077

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出款需达投注量是什么©2015 liaowangzhiku(beijing)kejifazhanyouxiangongsi jingicpbei10031607hao-3

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